“Devotion” to Puzzle Design and Indirect Control

If you haven’t played the game and are planning to do so, I suggest you to look away. Spoilers beyond this point.

Image result for omg cat
What? Have you not played yet?!

I’m going to post this nice picture here to avoid innocent souls being spoiled.


Devotion is a horror game developed by Taiwanese developers Red Candle Games. It depicts the tragedy of a family in which the father puts too much expectation to his daughter, and wrongfully places faith into a cult that he thought would help his daughter, thus the title “Devotion”. In the end he is left in misery where his wife leaves him and he kills his own daughter by performing a cult ritual.

Players jump back and forth on the timeline and experience the events mostly through the perspective of the father. In terms of level design, it inherits the idea of P.T., reusing the same level geometry to create eeriness and incite discomfort. Gameplay-wise it bears simplistic controls, where the players spend all of their time wandering around and interact with objects using a single button. Games that bear similar controls include Slenderman and The Return of the Obra Dinn.

P.T. style exploration. Same layout but different placements of objects.

As a fellow Taiwanese game designer, I couldn’t express how excited I was for the game; but I also wanted to observe how people from different cultures would understand the plot, given that the story happens in the 80’s Taiwan. I was lucky to gather a few friends and experience the horror together.

Calling it a “Devotion Party” makes it like a cult more than ever.

After some time into the game we came to this level where the father has to travel between three times (1980, 1985, 1986) and solve puzzles to continue, and we immediately identified an issue with the game — it’s misuse of indirect control.

Defining Direct v. Indirect

The term “Indirect Control” is more popularly used among game designers, and so for its expected counterpart, “Direct Control”, we’ll just try to define it the from other way around.

Here is an extracted part of Lens #72: The Lens of Indirect Control from Jesse Schell’s The Art of Game Design: A Book of Lenses:

Every designer has a vision of what they would like the players to do to have an ideal play experience. To help ensure the players do these things of their own free will, ask yourself these questions…

Jesse Schell, The Art of Game Design: A Book of Lenses

The key part here is “the players do these things (what the designers would like them to do) of their own free will”. I think it’s acceptable to understand this and define indirect control as “telling players what to do without actually telling them”; if this is true, then direct control is simply telling players explicitly to “do this” or “complete that”.

So, What Went Wrong?

In the later stages the game transforms itself from a horror game into a puzzle-solving game, and players have to figure out where the items they’ve collected in the game belong; yet the game refuses to lose its original form of horror game, so it continues to include some mechanics that are purposed to create tension and pressure, such as flickering lights on a hallway that would hint players’ to move there.

These mechanics designed to scare players share one feature in common: there is only one switch and one result. The players will only be scared when they move towards the lights. The mannequins will only relocate when players enter the kitchen. Each reaction is triggered through one and only one action.

The mannequin does not move until you enter and leave the kitchen.
Image captured from
【 還願 】2小時電影剪輯版(中文字幕) – 無旁白、電影式運鏡、避免3D暈 – PC特效全開2K60FPS – 还愿 Devotion by Semenix Gaming

The bigger issue is that the puzzle events are designed the same way as the horror sequences. Players rarely hold on to more than one item in their inventory, and they only obtain the next item once you’ve put the only item in their bags at the correct location; in other words, the
only puzzle is to figure out where the item — not items — belongs.

This puzzle design, did not go well with the game when indirect control kicked in and entangled itself with the puzzles. As a result, players didn’t even had to figure out the puzzle (where items should be placed), because indirect control will come and hint you on where to go. This made us think less on the story, and yet this is a story-heavy experience, especially for foreign players who are expected to have less understanding on Asian religious cultures.

The problem didn’t just exist in this particular time-traveling level, but rather throughout the entire game. Why the problem stood out particularly in this level is that this stage required players to frequently exit and enter different-but-same rooms to carry multiple items across them. Although it would seem like there are a lot of paths to choose from, there was only one that actually worked. The effort for traveling, as mentioned above, spiked high in this level. (By the way, the loading wait times between each level was painfully long, and we had to suffer multiple times) In the end, it became frustrating, like a chore to us, to navigate and complete the chapter.

In this particular stage, players have to frequently travel between the three same apartments through the same lobby.

Another moment that stood out to us happens later in the game, where the father performs a ritual that allows him to speak with his inner self and to the deity he has been worshiping. As he is about to meet his own consciousness, he is met with two doors:

Only the door on the left is accessible.

Only the door on the left is accessible; when players approach the other door, they will hear an extra voice dialogue telling them to go to the other door. I find this moment exceptionally awkward for the following reasons:

  1. Players can clearly see two doors, with one being obstructed. Any player who possesses a slightly higher curiosity will drive him/herself to try opening that blocked door, and yet the game failed to fulfill his/her expectation. The lack of reward for exploration destroys the sense of freedom.
  2. This is more or less related to cognitive psychology, but the general public is trained to scan images and text from top to bottom, from left to right; We often find things aligned to the left more satisfying than aligned to the right. If we apply this observation to this scenario, players will more likely to go directly to the left door without even approaching the right. This makes me question why they put an inaccessible path at a location where not many people will visit based on instinct.
  3. If you put a door there deliberately and tell people not to enter that door, then why did you put the door there at the first place? Perhaps it has something to do with religion and folk belief, but clearly it makes no sense to the gameplay, thus pointless.

What It Has To Do With Indirect Control

Indirect control is the art of silently manipulating players and their decisions without interfering with their sense of freedom; in both cases mentioned above however, it was either abused or misused.

In the time-travelling level, the game never tells the player what to do (except in the first few minutes of the game), but players will eventually know what to action to perform and which item to perform on; unfortunately, it did not grant players enough liberty to establish in them the sense of freedom. The linear puzzle design driven by didn’t offer players multiple options to try. The only freedom allowed to the players was to walk around the world, and trying to remember which rooms the items are in. Since the levels work like P.T., it’s sadly small, repetitive and has no other values other than its realistic art. This means that the world can be easily explored completely. When that happens, the sense of freedom will quickly decay if no new features are introduced, which, unfortunately, is the case of Devotion. In short, the overuse of indirect control in a space that does not allow a lot of freedom at the beginning with a puzzle design that’s also very linear.

In the left/right door level, indirect control did not impress me as the positioning of accessible/inaccessible paths made no sense gameplay-wise.

Devotion is an ambitious game with its remarkable story and beautiful graphics. Although it’s an enjoyable experience, it could’ve been better if it had more — only a bit more is all I’m asking — depth in its gameplay.

Poster of Devotion grabbed from https://theinitium.com/roundtable/20190222-roundtable-culture-devotion/

Published by

Brian Teng

Game Designer | San Jose, CA

2 thoughts on ““Devotion” to Puzzle Design and Indirect Control”

  1. I like the two door part since it represent an inevitable path the main character is forced to go on even though he or the player try to make a different choice, it’s no use. He shut the door of possibilities himself to trust not his family but a cult. He run away from his wife who tried to save him and knew deeply the only answer is to unite the three of them (the wheel fragment puzzle), he still can’t put down the utilitarianism that suffers the whole family. It’s the feel of guilt and heroism which is killing him inside and thus destroy the family he most love.


    1. Yeah! I totally agree with you. If only what you just said could be somehow depicted by interacting with the door on the right, I think it’d make it an even better experience.


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